Hepatics cysts, tumors and cancers are a group of hepatic abnormalities that are becoming increasingly prevalent in the U.S., especially with the increasing use of CT scan and MRI imaging of the abdomen for other diseases. Furthermore, because of the increasing prevalence of liver disease and dysfunction, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, more patients are being diagnosed with these hepatic abnormalities. However, the appropriate diagnosis and management of these hepatic abnormalities are complex, requiring a multidisciplinary team to navigate this process.
The first step in treatment requires the establishment of a diagnosis, before proceeding with any treatment, especially before surgery. For non-cancerous tumors or cysts of the liver, the patient must be evaluated for their risk of malignancy, which may include other tests, potentially even genetic testing and counseling if indicated, before final recommendations can be provided.
For liver cancers, the treatment depends on the type of cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, metastatic cancer to the liver, etc), cancer stage, and the clinical status of the patient. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, non-surgical local therapy, and/or clinical trials.