The actual causes of vulvodynia can be elusive. Possible causes include abnormalities of embryologic development, genetic or immunologic factors, hormonal factors, nerve damage, allergic reactions, pelvic floor muscle tightening and nerve entrapment. It can lead to profound psychosocial issues.
Treatment is often multifaceted. Topical medications such as lidocaine, estrogen, testosterone, baclofen and gabapentin have been used successfully. Topical steroids and topical antifungals do not work for vulvodynia. Some antidepressants and medications that treat neuropathy have also been useful.